Classification and Diagnosis

Axial and peripheral SpA

The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II): validation and final selection.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Jun;68(6):777-83.

The Assessment in Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria for peripheral spondyloarthritis and for spondyloarthritis in general: the spondyloarthritis concept in progress
Ann Rheum Dis 2011;70:1-3.

Predictive validity of the ASAS classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis after follow-up in the ASAS cohort: a final analysis.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jun;75(6):1034-42.

Performance of the ASAS classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.                                  Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jun;75(6):1034-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865599

ASAS modification of the Berlin algorithm for diagnosing axial spondyloarthritis: results from the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE)-cohort and from the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS)-cohort.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Oct;72(10):1646-53.

Psoriatic arthritis

Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new criteria from a large international study.
Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Aug;54(8):2665-73.

Disease Scores, Calculators and Questionnaires

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Outcome Measures

Modification of the Psoriatic Arthritis Disease Activity score. 
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Mar; 77(3):467-468

The development of candidate composite disease activity and responder indices for psoriatic arthritis (GRACE project).
Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Jun; 72(6):986-91

Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS): defining cut-off values for disease activity states and improvement scores.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Jan;70(1):47-53.

ASDAS, a highly discriminatory ASAS-endorsed disease activity score in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Dec;68 (12):18118 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19060001

Development of an ASAS-endorsed disease activity score (ASDAS) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Jan;68(1):18-24.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625618

Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jun;75(6):991-6.

A new approach to defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index.                                                                          
J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2286-91.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7699630

A new approach to defining functional ability in ankylosing spondylitis: the development of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index.                                      
J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2281-5.                   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7699629

The ASAS Health Index (ASAS HI) - a new tool to assess the health status of patients with spondyloarthritis.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014 Sep-Oct;32(5 Suppl 85):S-105-8 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25365097

Reference intervals of spinal mobility measures in normal individuals: the MOBILITY study.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Jun;74(6):1218-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24665113

Development of an ASAS-endorsed recommendation for the early referral of patients with a suspicion of axial spondyloarthritis.                                                                          
Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74:1483-7.            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990288

Defining minimal disease activity in psoriatic arthritis: a proposed objective target for treatment.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Jan;69(1):48-53.

ASAS recommendations for collecting, analysing and reporting NSAID intake in clinical trials/epidemiological studies in axial spondyloarthritis.                                                      
Ann Rheum Di. 2011 Feb;70(2):249-51. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20829199

Development and preselection of criteria for short term improvement after anti-TNF alpha treatment in ankylosing spondylitis.                                                                          
Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Nov;63(11):1438-44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15044211

Ankylosing Spondylitis Assessment Group Preliminary Definition of Short-Term Improvement in Ankylosing Spondylitis.
Arthritis Rheum Dis 2001 Aug;44(8):1876-86.

Imaging Tools


Assessment of outcome in ankylosing spondylitis: an extended radiographic scoring system. The most widely used radiographic score is the Msasss.
Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:127-9.


Defining active sacroiliitis on MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: update by the ASAS MRI working group.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Nov;75(11):1958-1963.

Descriptions of spinal MRI lesions and definition of a positive MRI of the spine in axial spondyloarthritis: a consensual approach by the ASAS/OMERACT MRI study group.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Aug;71(8):1278-88.


Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound: results of a delphi process and of a reliability reading exercise.
Arthritis Care Res 66:741–748.

Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of psoriatic dactylitis: status and perspectives.
J Rheumatol. 2013 Dec;40(12):1951-7.

Recommendations & Guidelines

GRAPPA PsA Web App - Psoriatic Arthritis Pocket Guide

Management and Treatment

ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of axial spondyloarthritis: 2022 update.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2023 Jan;82(1):19-34.                                                            https://ard.bmj.com/content/82/1/19.long

GRAPPA updated treatment recommendations for psoriatic arthritis 2021                        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2022 Aug;18(8):465-479.                                                                          https://www.nature.com/articles/s41584-022-00798-0

Treating axial spondyloarthritis and peripheral spondyloarthritis, especially psoriatic arthritis, to target: 2017 update of recommendations by an international task force.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jan; 77:3–17.

New GRAPPA and EULAR recommendations for the management of psoriatic arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Aug; 56(8):1251-1253.

2016 update of the ASAS-EULAR management recommendations for axial spondyloarthritis.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Jan 13. pii: annrheumdis-2016-210770.

Efficacy and safety of biological and targeted-synthetic DMARDs: a systematic literature review informing the 2016 update of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of axial spondyloarthritis.                                                                                RMD Open. 2017; 3(1): e000396.             https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176964

European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of psoriatic arthritis with pharmacological therapies: 2015 update.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Mar;75(3):499-510.

Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis 2015 Treatment Recommendations for Psoriatic Arthritis.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 May;68(5):1060-71

Treating spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, to target: recommendations of an international task force.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jan;73(1):6-16.


EULAR recommendations for the use of imaging in the diagnosis and management of spondyloarthritis in clinical practice.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Jul;74(7):1327-39.

Clinical handbook

The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) handbook: a guide to assess spondyloarthritis.
Ann Rheum Dis 2009;68;ii1-ii44

Professional Organisations

Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS)
The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) is an international group of experts in the field of spondyloarthritis. The mission of ASAS is to support and promote the study of spondyloarthritis.

GRAPPA (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis) is organized exclusively for non-profit, educational, and scientific purposes, specifically to facilitate sharing of information related to psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, networking among different medical disciplines that see psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients, and to enhance research, diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

SPondyloArthritis Research and Treatment Network (SPARTAN)
SPARTAN is a network of health care professionals in North America who are dedicated to research, awareness and treatment of spondyloarthritis.

Patient Organisations

Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation (ASIF)
The ASIF is a worldwide organization of national self-help societies for people with ankylosing spondylitis/axial spondyloarthritis. This website also lists spondylitis organizations' contact information (address, phone number, email) for those without a website presence.

Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew (DVMB)
The German Association of Ankylosing Spondylitis (DVMB) is a self-help organization for patients with ankylosing spondylitis/axial spondyloarthritis.

Spondylitis Association of America
The Spondylitis Association of America is a nonprofit organization dedicated to help people affected by spondyloarthritis in the USA.

The Arthritis Foundation
The Arthritis Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention and treatment of arthritis, including spondyloarthritis. It offers advice and guidance to help make living with arthritis easier.